AbstractOne of the most radical ways of teaching about universal human rights and international humanitarian law would be to teach about these fundamental internationally-recognized standards for humane interpersonal conduct to every child who enters school in the United States. American illiteracy about human rights and humanitarian law standards contributes to the climate in which the United States preaches human rights to it's perceived opponents while refusing to apply universally recognized hr and ihl principles to itself. From the failure to incorporate into the American educational structure the cultural and linguistic rights of Indigenous peoples and ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to the refusal to submit to the same standards of international humanitarian law which apply to all combatants, U.S. political and military leaders have been able to rely on the unfamiliarity of most Americans with the fundamental principles of human rights and international humanitarian law to insulate them from effective public scrutiny and meaningful challenge. This article describes efforts to mainstream human rights education at all levels of public education so it becomes a part of the educational experience of every child and, thus, part of the background of every adult. The risks of having HRE co-opted are dwarfed by the risks of having HRE sidelined.
American Red Cross (2011) Survey on International Humanitarian Law. http://www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProductCatalog/m12940087_Survey_on_International_Humanitarian_Law.pdf
Amnesty International (2003, August 9). Iraq -- responsibilities of the occupying power.: http://web.amnesty.org.library/print/ENGMDE140892003. (accessed 10/30/2003)
Author, (2003) Incorporating an Understanding of International Human Rights Concepts and Conventions into the Civic Education of America’s Youth. Unpublished manuscript presented at the International Conference on Civic Edjucation Research, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 16-18, 2003.
Author., Senesh L. & Patterson-Black, S. (1999). The organic social studies curriculum and the 1994 NCSS standards: A model for linking community and world. The Social Studies, 90(2), 63-67.
British Red Cross, in partnership with Allen & Overy. (2009). Justice and fairness: Exploring justice and fairness as part of international humanitarian law. Introductory pamphlet. Curriculum available online at http://www.redcross.org.uk/What-we-do/Teaching-resources/Teaching-packages/Justice-and-Fairness
Capotorti, F. (1979). Study on the rights of persons belonging to ethnic, religious. and linguistic minorities Capotorti, F. (1979)(UN Commision on Human Rights, U.N. Rpt. E/CN.4.Sub.2./384/Rev 1). New York, NY: United Nations.
CBS News (2004). 60 Minutes: Abuse of Iraqi POWs by GIs Probed. April 28, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/04/27/60II/main614063.shtml Retrieved 08/20/07
Charleston, G. M. (1994) Toward True Native Education: A Treaty of 1992. Journal of American Indian Education, 33(2), 1-56, 1994, ERIC Number: EJ491769).
Diplomatic Conference of Geneva (1949; 2004). Final Record of the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1049. Buffalo, NY: William S. Hein.
Epictitus ( A.D. c. 55 – 135) Enchiridion. Translation by T.W. Higginson, New York, Liberal Arts Press of Bobbs-Merrill, 1935, 1948.
Fowler, J. (2003, April 24). U.S. bridles as UN's Koffe Annan calls it "occupying power".: Associated Press.
Glendon, M.A.(2002). A World Made New – Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, New York: Random House.
Gonzalez, A ( 2002). Memorandum for the President: Decision re Application of the Geneva Conventioni on Prisoners of War to the Conflict with Al Quaeda and the Taliban. http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/torturingdemocracy/documents/20020125.pdf ).
Hedges, C. and Al-Arian,L. (2007)The Other War: Iraq Vets Bear Witness. In The Nation Hedges, http://www.thenation.com/article/other-war-iraq-vets-bear-witness-0/ , retrieved 10/01/2014.
Hersh, S. (2004). Annals of National Security Torture at Abu Ghraib. New Yorker, May 10, 2004 http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/05/10/040510fa_fact. Retrieved May, 2004.
Hessel, S. ( 2010, 2011) Time for Outrage – Indignez-vous! New York, Twelve, Hachette Book Group.
Human Rights Educators USA (HRE USA), Materials For Teaching, Learning, & Action, http://www.hreusa.net/materials_teaching.php . Retrieved 10/05/2015.
Human Rights Educators USA (HRE USA) and United States Human Rights Network (USHRN) (2014), Stakeholder Report, http://www.hreusa.net/upload_image/HRE_USA_-_USHRN_Stakeholder_Submission_US_UPR_Sept_2014.pdf)
Kelly, J., 2013. The Core Problem: Preventing the United Nations Takeover ofK‐12 Education in America. http://www.globalgovernancewatch.org/docLib/20130429_The_Core_Problem_-_Preventing_the_United_Nations_Takeover_of_K-12_Education_in_America.pdf ).
Martinez Cobo, J. R. (1987). Study of the Problem of Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations -- Vol. V: Conclusions, Proposals and Recommendations. New York: United Nations.
National Council for the Social Studies (2014) Human Rights Education: A Necessity for Effective Social and Civic Learning , A Position Statement of the National Council for the Social Studies. http://www.socialstudies.org/positions/human_rights_education_2014).
National Council for the Social Studies (2015) Social Education, Vol. 79, No. 3, Teaching About Human Rights
Radical Teacher, Vol 103, 2015 http://radicalteacher.library.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/radicalteacher, retrieved 11/02/2015.
Schmitt, M. (2003, April 15). Law of Belligerent Occupier. Global Policy Forum, 2003(10/30),
Stahelin, B. (2003, May 9). International law: the way ahead in Iraq.: ICRC: http://electroniciraq.news/782.shtml (accessed 10/30/2003).
United Nations Human Rights Council (2015) Universal Periodic Review Second Cycle: United States of America, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/USSession22.aspx (See also: United States Human Rights Network (USHRN) (2015) Universal Periodic Review http://www.ushrnetwork.org/our-work/project/upr-universal-periodic-review)
U.S. Congress, 1992. Congressional Record 102nd Congress, Senate, April 02,1992, Page: S4781.